G-M377 Diversity Across Eurasia and the Americas

The following information is from a conversation I had January 20, 2020 with Ted Kandell of Open Genomes. I then made some edits and added some information about additional YFull samples.


G-M377 went through a long bottleneck, from 18,000 BC to 6500 BC. Late PPNB / Earliest Pottery Neolithic.
There are two lineages not represented on YFull yet, which are very divergent from each other and from all others:
  1. An Armenian noble family from Lachin, Nagorno-Karabakh, who seem to be in the same clade as a Tabassaran from Dagestan
  2. A sample from Pozuolli, the port of Naples
Then there is a very diverse clade of South Syrian Christians from around Damascus, (Saidnaya and Damascus), with many others from Lebanon, some of whom are clearly of South Syrian origin.
There is a single representative of this group on YFull so their subclade of G-M377 is not yet identified by SNPs. However, in YHRD, they are quite diverse. They represent about 1% of the Lebanese male population.
G-M377 has one child lineage on YFull called J-Y12297 which all others descend from.


The other lineage of G-M377 is G-Y12297. There appear to be three lineages of this man. Only two are on YFull and the estimated most recent common ancestor of them 2700 BC.
The third group consists of Rushani and Shugni Pamiris from Tajikistan and there is a cluster of similar haplotypes from around Benevento and Salerno in Italy, and also one from Liaoning, China! (Yan et al, 2010)
Not clear what they are on the SNP tree, but they appear to be at least in G-Y12297.
The other two known lineages of G-Y12297 are G-M3124 and G-Y12975.


This is the most common branch under G-Y12297. It's represented by:
  1. one single Sicilian family from Caltagirone
  2. and, a HUGE number of Pathans (also known as Pashtuns) from around the Khyber Pass region, and their descendants.

Pashtun men in Kandahar from Wikipedia article on Pashtuns. (U.S. Navy photo by Petty Officer 1st Class Mark O’Donald/Released)"

Their common ancestor lived 1300 BC. The Pathans, G-M283, represent a host of "Karlani" tribes: Wardak, Afridi, Mohman, Orakzai, Yusafzai, Khogyani, etc. This extends to Afridis and other Pathans brought by the Mughals to India.

  • There's one from Kyrgyzstan, clearly in this clade, from a town that was established as a fortress in the 1820s by the Emirate of Bukhara.
  • Also, a Burusho. The Burusho were ruled by a Pathan dynasty for centuries, and there were Pathan descendants among them.
  • And a 1K Genomes Punjabi from Lahore.
  • Also, an "Indian" from Malaysia from Britain. (Clearly of Pathan descent.)
This is a really big lineage. Perhaps over 1 million men.
It's difficult to explain the presence of G-M3124 in both Sicily and Afghanistan. The only thing they have in common are the Greeks. The problem is that there are no Greeks in G-M377. NONE.
There clearly is one from Tehran, but Pathan mercenaries helped overthrown the Safavids and served the Qajars in the mid-late 18th century.


This is a mostly Ashkenazi lineage all descending from a man who lived about 1050 years ago. However there are also some mestizos from Merida, Mexico and Eskimo Aleuts with this mutation...
Most of the living members who have tested on YFull can only trace their descent through genealogical records back to Central or Eastern Europe a few hundred years ago. However, Jews were not in Poland-Lithuania before 1350.
The tMRCA of 970 CE is just before the migration of Italian Jews to the Rhineland, in 987, under the Emperor Otto III.
I have written a separate article on G-Y12975 for it because it has a complicated history with a lot of material to cover.

Other G-M377 Samples

The specific lineage of these samples has not yet been determined:
  1. A sample from Egypt from a Haber study. We don't have the BAM, but he's divergent from the Lebanese.
  2. A sample from Kars Turkey from Cinnioglu (2006), uncertain clade.
  3. A sample from Azerbaijan from Grugni (2012), no STRs. Possibly the Armenian clade, who knows?
These posts are the opinion of Hunter Provyn, a haplogroup researcher in J-M241 and J-M102.

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