To use PhyloGeographer you will need to know a SNP of your terminal subclade. Your terminal subclade is the most specific branch of your haplogroup that your paternal lineage belongs to.

If you know any SNP from this subclade you can use the SNP Lookup.

There are two ways to learn your Y-haplogroup.

  1. You have taken a Y-chromosome test.
  2. A family member that would have the same Y-chromosome as you has taken a Y-chromosome test.

There are two types of Y-chromosome DNA that are analyzed:

  • STRs
    • Counts how many times a basepair sequence repeats at given positions
    • Given the higher mutation rate, results are not completely reliable for estimating time of divergence
    • If enough matches have been tested to enough markers, analysis of results can establish male lineage relationships
  • SNPs
    • Identifies single basepair mutations
    • Extremely low mutation rate means that results are more reliable
    • YFull takes SNP results from Next Gen Sequence tests to construct their tree which is a standard in the research community

SNPs and STRs can be tested individually or in panels by YSEQ or Family Tree DNA.


  • Compare the prices of their products and consider that:
    • YSEQ Alpha + Beta tests all STRs of FTDNA's 37 PLUS some extra STRs
    • YSEQ Gamma tests the STRs from FTDNA's 37 to 67 upgrade PLUS some extra STRs
    • YSEQ Delta tests the STRs from FTDNA's 67 to 111 upgrade PLUS some extra STRs
  • Haplogroup Administrators I know from FTDNA are able to look at your results from YSEQ and encourage people to test there because of the additional STRs they provide

WGS - Whole Genome Sequencing

  • Most state of the art test and usually provides the best value, sequencing your entire genome at once (mitochondria, Y-chromosome, autosomal DNA)
  • You get more SNPs than Big Y because certain regions of the Y-chromosome are ignored by Big Y
  • Not recommended for beginners as you need to know what to do with this data
  • Offered by YSEQ, Full Genomes, Dante Labs

Your subclade may become more refined as time goes on and as you and your matches take more tests.

More information