R-M417 Theoretical Origin Computed as NE Germany

R-M417 is the most prolific lineage of R-M198, which is the most prolific lineage of R-M459, itself the most prolific lineage of R1a.

From 6600-3400 BC this lineage was a bottleneck, meaning all descendants alive today descend from the last son who lived in 3400 BC. All M417 have the same 32 mutations inherited from the men who lived during the bottleneck.

R-M417 computed by PhyloGeographer version 3 as having originated between more eastern R-Z645 and North Sea R-CTS4385.

Since R-Z645 is much more widely distributed, let's examine the distribution of its subclades.

R-Z645 computed as having originated between children Z283 and Z93. Both child lineages are however widely distributed throughout Europe so this visualization does not suffice to explain why the children were computed in their respective locations. Note the migrations of Z93 to South and West Asia.

R-Z93 has a wide distribution with two Polish subclades YP5321, BY30941, YP1451 found in England, France and Kuwait, YP5585 from India to England, KMS149 found in the Caucasus, Altai Krai and Saudi, Y34351 in India, Kuwait and Sweden, Y39884 found in Russia and ancient samples from the steppes ERS2374306 and ERS2374410, YP1506 from Altai Republic to Pakistan and prolific Z94 in South Asia.

R-Z94 has the greatest diversity in South Asia, and is computed to have formed in West-Central India. Note the very wide distribution of R-Z2124 extending westward back to Europe.

Much of the Z93 in Europe appears to be a later back-migration from lineage Z94>Z2124. This is why the origin for Z93 is computed further to the east.

The PhyloGeographer haplogroup visualization mode cannot generate a color coded subclade distrbution of Z2124 at this time because its formation date (2800 BC) is identical to parent Z94.

It will be interesting to revisit Z2124, along with its upstream branches, as we integrate more ancient DNA samples into PhyloGeographer and as the YFull tree resolution increases.

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